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Subject > Politics and Society > Industry and Commerce

Date > 1500

Other Fruitless Expeditions

Type: Document

Martin Frobisher led unsuccessful English expeditions to find the Northwest Passage. There were conflicts with the Inuit. Other English mariners also voyaged to the region around Labrador.

Site: National Defence

Soldiers Of The Canadian Expeditions

Type: Document

The soldiers accompanying early expeditions worked for private businesses, not for the state. Many were veterans of European wars, or gentlemen seeking land or gold.

Site: National Defence

Difficult Relations

Type: Document

Cartier's expedition got along poorly with the Iroquois at Quebec. Discovery of what was falsely thought to be gold led to discord between Roberval and Cartier. Eventually, the fortified settlement was abandoned.

Site: National Defence

War and the Foundation of Canada - Permanent European Settlement

Type: Document

During the 16th century, European fishermen, whalers, traders, adventurers, and explorers visited the eastern seaboard of North America and established a lucrative fur trade by the early 1600s. While fishermen and whalers had generally co-operated with First Peoples in exchanging goods, permanent European settlement and involvement in the fur trade with Hurons and Algonkians soon led the French to join these nations in their war with the Iroquois Confederacy.

Site: Canadian War Museum

A Spanish Ocean

Type: Document

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the European wars that had touched the eastern coasts of North and South America left the Pacific untroubled. From the European point of view, the region was largely unexplored, despite being bordered by Spanish colonies.

Site: National Defence

Basque Whaling Fleets on the Labrador Coast

Type: Document

During the later 16th Century, large Basque fleets hunted whales off Labrador. Seasonal settlements supported this lucrative fishery.

Site: National Defence

Conflict Amongst the Basques

Type: Document

There was sometimes fighting between the northern (French) Basques and the southern (Spanish) Basques. As well, war between France and Spain also affected the armed fishing fleets. The Inuit ashore were also hostile to the fishermen.

Site: National Defence