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The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

A New Balance of Power?

Type: Document

With more troops available, new tactics could be used to defend Canada. Strong garrisons for the towns and new forts to block Iroquois attacks along the Richelieu River were created.

Site: National Defence

Armed Gangs Formed

Type: Document

In Lower Canada, the opposing political factions formed semi-secret paramilitary groups during the 1830s. The reformist Patriotes created Les Fils de la Liberté, while the conservatives had their Doric Club. Trapped in the middle, the British garrison prepared for trouble.

Site: National Defence

A Colonial Way of War

Type: Document

During the 18th century, France held huge inland regions in North America with a few men for two reasons. First, land was largely controlled by trade alliances with local Amerindians. Second, tactics were used that combined indigenous methods with European organization and discipline.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Reinforcements Raised

Type: Document

During the year 1813, Britain's attention was focused on its fight against Napoleon's troops in Spain. There were limited reinforcements available for North America. To help strengthen the colonies' defences, many units were raised from Canadian volunteers and conscripts.

Site: National Defence

Independence and Isolation

Type: Document

The First World War led to Canada’s independent stance within the Empire, a position that was fully severed after the Chanak Crisis of 1922 and the passage of the 1931 Statue of Westminster granting full independence. Pacifism, a product of the terrible losses during the war, became fashionable in society and government policy followed. Prime Minister Mackenzie King sought to prevent foreign entanglements from splitting the country as had happened in 1917.

Site: National Defence

Manpower Problems of the Canadian Army During the Second World War

Type: Document

This report attempts to describe how the Canadian Army made use of its manpower pool during the Second World War. First there was the question of whether men and women could serve their country best by by joining the Armed Forces, taking jobs in rapidly-expanding industries, or remaining in agricultural production. And then, were the services of those who enlisted in the Canadian forces employed to the best advantage?

Site: National Defence

Political Polarization

Type: Document

During the 1820s and 1830s, the politics of Upper and Lower Canada became polarized and radical. Calls for political reform were rejected by the authorities, and conservative and reform extremists in both colonies became more and more vocal and intolerant.

Site: National Defence

Social Changes

Type: Document

The new British way of defending colonies led to great social changes in Canada during the late 18th century. With no professional colonial army to join, the elite of Canadian society lost much income and influence. As well, British soldiers developed no roots in the colony.

Site: National Defence

The Situation Explodes

Type: Document

On 6 November 1837, an attack in Montreal by the conservative Doric Club against reformers of Les Fils de la Liberté led to a general uprising by Patriote forces in the region surrounding the city. British troops called out to quell a riot faced the start of the Lower Canada Rebellion.

Site: National Defence