History Browser

Search Results

Subject > Politics and Society > Social Conscience and Activism

Date > 1700

The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

A Colonial Way of War

Type: Document

During the 18th century, France held huge inland regions in North America with a few men for two reasons. First, land was largely controlled by trade alliances with local Amerindians. Second, tactics were used that combined indigenous methods with European organization and discipline.

Site: National Defence

Social Changes

Type: Document

The new British way of defending colonies led to great social changes in Canada during the late 18th century. With no professional colonial army to join, the elite of Canadian society lost much income and influence. As well, British soldiers developed no roots in the colony.

Site: National Defence

Hospitals

Type: Document

Hospitals in New France were founded and maintained by religious orders of the Roman Catholic church. The cost of the institutions was borne by the state, in return for which officers, soldiers and sailors received free care, food and medicine.

Site: National Defence

Officers Make a Difference

Type: Document

The officers of the Compagnies franches de la Marine made an important impact in the colony. The high proportion of officers in the companies allowed the sons of local gentlemen a military role, first as cadets and later as officers.

Site: National Defence

Retirement

Type: Document

Prior to 1712, discharged soldiers had no sort of pension to fall back upon when they left the military. They were forced to beg, or rely on religious charity if they were unable to earn their living.

Site: National Defence

Britain and Spain on the Brink of War

Type: Document

Spain mobilized its fleet in 1790, responding to the diplomatic crisis with Britain over events at Nootka on the northwest coast of America. Soon British and Spanish squadrons were at sea, sailing to intimidate the enemy. Fortunately, the opposing forces did not meet on the high seas.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Militia Demobilized

Type: Document

In 1776, the arrival of General Burgoyne's British army in Canada meant there was less need for Canadian militia companies and they were disbanded. Governor Carleton had difficulty raising three new companies to act as auxiliaries to Burgoyne's force.

Site: National Defence

Late Loyalists

Type: Document

The Late Loyalists settled in Upper Canada just before the War of 1812. Many were Americans who sold their land to take the free land being offered or groups such as the Mennonites who came to Canada to escape compulsory military service with the American militia.

Site: Parks Canada

The Governor General's Staff

Type: Document

The fact that the staff of the Governor General of New France was almost entirely military in nature shows how strong the military character of the colony was. The only administrative officer was the Intendant, whose financial area of responsibility had strong military significance.

Site: National Defence