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Canadian POWs

Type: Document

During the First World War nearly 3,000 Canadians became prisoners of war.

Site: National Defence

Canada’s Military Effort: Summing Up

Type: Document

Canada’s effort during the First World War was exceptional given its small population and its military history. Those Canadians who sacrificed their lives are remembered in the many monuments and cemeteries in Europe.

Site: National Defence

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

On Top of the Ridge

Type: Document

Canada's achievement at Vimy was a contrast to the previous failure of the French Neville offensive. Canadians were later used at Arleux-Gobelle and Fresnoy as part of the British effort to keep the Germans occupied while the French army, suffering from a series of mutinies due to high casualties, waited for the Americans to arrive.

Site: National Defence

Treatment Of Prisoners

Type: Document

One problem of raid warfare was the treatment of prisoners - they were often brutally tortured, as was the custom of the Amerindians. This was ironic, as the Canadians themselves had suffered badly this way from the Iroquois.

Site: National Defence

The Americans Repulsed

Type: Document

During the battle of New Year's Eve of 1775, a column of American rebels led by General Arnold made one last attack on Quebec City. Arnold was wounded and many of his men captured when British governor Carleton attacked the rebels from behind.

Site: National Defence

The Horrors of War

Type: Document

Warfare in the 19th century was horrible, despite the colourful uniforms. In the aftermath of the November 1837 battle of Saint-Charles, a British officer helped two young Canadian women to find their Patriote father. His corpse was found, frozen and contorted, with a horrible head wound.

Site: National Defence

Once Again, War with the Foxes

Type: Document

Eager to restore their standing after the humiliation of 1716, the Foxes began fighting with the Illinois nation, French allies. At the same time, they established a series of alliances with other groups. A French-led expedition burned Fox villages in 1728, but victory was only partial.

Site: National Defence

Another Round Of Iroquois Wars

Type: Document

The Iroquois pressed their advantage, raiding and spreading fear among the colonists. A French attempt to force a pitched battle was unsuccessful.

Site: National Defence

D-Day - the 6th of June Landing

Type: Document

The Canadian Army played a significant role in the D-Day landings, with the 3rd Infantry division and the 2nd Armoured Brigade landing on Juno Beach. The 1st Parachute Battalion preceded the landings, and further divisions followed to form the 2nd Canadian Corps. Heavy casualties slowed the taking of Caen, and costly battles followed at Verrieres Ridge and the Falaise Gap after fighting the best German SS formations.

Site: National Defence