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Allied Forces in Canada, 1940-1943

Type: Document

This report discusses the organizing and training of troops of Allied contingents by Allied governments exiled in Canada, with particular focus on the agreement and regulations that Canada made with the Netherlands.

Site: National Defence

A Chance For French Revenge

Type: Document

Isolated diplomatically, Britain began to suffer greatly when other European powers entered American Revolutionary War after 1778. France, followed by Spain and the Netherlands, threw the British on the defensive. British colonies and fleets world-wide suffered capture or defeat.

Site: National Defence

Worsening Relations with the Iroquois

Type: Document

Under Governor Montmagny, relations with the Iroquois soured further. Outright war broke out in 1641.

Site: National Defence

Acadia

Type: Document

When restored to France in 1667, Acadia also benefited from King Louis XIV's policy of strengthening his colonies. Royal troops were sent to the colony, but were soon disbanded. When France declared war on the Netherlands in 1672, poorly defended Acadia suffered badly at the hands of Dutch privateers.

Site: National Defence

Change Starts in the West Indies

Type: Document

A near disaster against the Dutch at the French colony of Martinique prompted King Louis XIV to set up permanent colonial garrisons. These soldiers were controlled by the French Ministry of the Navy, and were known as 'Troupes de la Marine'.

Site: National Defence

Willemina Squires - My Grandmother's Wartime Diary - Canada and the Second World War

Type: Document

One woman's memories of Holland during WWII reveal how the loss of friends was one of the sad and lasting consequences of the war.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

The Decline

Type: Document

English disruption of Spanish power at sea helped force the decline of the Newfoundland fishery. English pirates made many attacks on the Basques.

Site: National Defence

Fragile Colonies

Type: Document

New France remained a struggling colony with a skeletal garrison. Constantly raided by the Iroquois, the colony was far smaller than the English or Dutch settlements in North America.

Site: National Defence

An Attack on the Iroquois

Type: Document

In an attempt to strike back at the Iroquois, Governor de Courcelles led a winter expedition to attack native villages south along the Richelieu River. The plan was a failure, with the French troops having to seek shelter and food from the Dutch settlement at Schenectady to avoid starvation.

Site: National Defence

Mothers - My Heroines! - Audrey Masselink - My Grandmother's Wartime Diary - Canada and the Second World War

Type: Document

A woman recounts notable experiences as a child in Nazi-occupied Holland and reflects on two women who are very important to her.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada