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Nomadic Cultures

Type: Document

Various nomadic cultures developed in what is modern-day Canada. Prior to European contact, there were hundreds of Amerindian peoples with histories stretching back thousands of years.

Site: National Defence

First Nations: True Masters of the Plains

Type: Document

The Plains Amerindians ruled the Prairies during the first half of the 19th century. These nomadic nations, fierce fighters and skilled riders, fought the advance of American settlement. Their relations with the traders of the Hudson's Bay Company were relatively smooth.

Site: National Defence

York Factory National Historic Site of Canada

Type: Document

Visitors to York Factory National Historic Site of Canada can experience the diverse history of the Hudson's Bay Company and the fur trade of the 1600-1800s.

Site: Parks Canada

Greyeyes

Type: Document

During his six-year term in the Canadian Army, David Georges Greyeyes served in seven European countries and assumed a variety of increasingly demanding military roles.Greyeyes served on the battlefield as a platoon commander with the Saskatoon Light Infantry (SLI) (MG) and earned the Greek Military Cross (third class) for valour for his help in supporting the Greek Mountain Brigade during the Italian Campaign.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Otter’s Column

Type: Document

Colonel William Otter led a column of militia from Swift Current to Battleford, seeking to punish local Cree Indians under Poundmaker. Otter was ambushed at Cut Knife Hill and retreated to Battleford. The defeat of the Metis resulted in the Cree scattering in the face of Otter’s pursuit and Poundmaker later surrendered.

Site: National Defence

Battle of Cut Knife Hill, 2 May 1885

Type: Image

Three hundred and fifty Canadian militia led by Lieutenant-Colonel Otter attacked a Plains Cree war camp at dawn on 2 May 1885. The Cree, although surprised, put up a stiff fight under war chief Fine Day. When the Canadians retreated late in the day, it was the persuasive influence of chief Poundmaker that stopped the Cree warriors from pursuing their foes. Some historians believe that this saved Otter's inexperienced men from being massacred. This rather idealized view of the battle is one of a series from the 'The Canadian Pictorial and Illustrated War News.'

Site: National Defence

Rebellion on the Plains - North West Rebellion

Type: DocumentFilm and Video

A description of the Métis and Indian involvement in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. The settlers' reaction to the threat of Indian uprising and the military backlash to actions taken by the rebels are also discussed. From the television series "Canada: A People's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The March and Pursuit of Big Bear

Type: Document

A third column of militia commanded by General Thomas Strange left Calgary en route to Battleford. His column surprised the Cree under Big Bear at Frenchman’s Butte, but a stalemate ensued and he retreated. Strange returned to Frenchman’s Butte in June 1885, but the Cree had dispersed. He later lead a pursuit of Big Bear who fought the last battle of the rebellion with Colonel Sam Steele at Duck Lake.

Site: National Defence

Map of La Vérendrye’s western explorations

Type: Image

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye (1685-1749) charted large areas of the Prairies during the 1730s and 1740s, unsuccessfully searching for the fabled Northwest Passage that linked the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Site: National Defence

York Factory National Historic Site of Canada : Commemorative Intent Statement

Type: Document

York Factory is commemorated for its critical role in the French-English struggle on Hudson Bay for control of the fur trade, as an important Hudson's Bay Company trading post and entrepôt (See definition below) for over two and one half centuries, and for its role in the expansion of the fur trade into the interior of western Canada.

Site: Parks Canada