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Champlain's famous fight on 30 July 1609 against the Iroquois Indians as interpreted in a late 19th century print

Type: Image

When Champlain took part in a 1609 Huron expedition against the Iroquois, he began a contest between two ways of warfare that lasted centuries. The combination of armour and firearms was rapidly understood and used to advantage by early French soldiers in Canada. By contrast, the Amerindians evolved furtive tactics and rapid movements which eventually proved to be the best in a wilderness environment.

Site: National Defence

Dollard's Expedition Surprised

Type: Document

A party of men under Dollard des Ormeaux, commander of the Montreal garrison, was surprised by a much larger group of Iroquois. Besieged at a disused Algonquin fort at Long-Sault on the Ottawa River, the Frenchmen and their Huron allies were wiped out.

Site: National Defence

Great Peace of Montreal - Peace Between the Indian Nations and France - Claiming the Wilderness

Type: DocumentFilm and Video

A brief account of the events leading up to the peace treaty between the French and the Indians signed in 1701. It also describes the important role played by the Huron chief Kondiaronk in the negotiations for this treaty. Taken from the television series "Canada: A people's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Clothing And Adornment

Type: Document

The Amerindian peoples first encountered by the Europeans wore leather clothing. They decorated themselves and their clothes for religious and traditional reasons, and also to impress their enemies.

Site: National Defence

The Colony Expands

Type: Document

A new settlement was begun, westwards of Quebec in Iroquois territory at Ville-Marie (later Montreal) in 1642. Another big development for the colony was the arrival of 60 soldiers paid for by the Queen of France.

Site: National Defence

Quebec

Type: Document

A second colony at Quebec, led by Champlain, saw much struggle. It changed hands, first to the English, then to a new French trading company. Attempts were made to fortify and strengthen the settlement.

Site: National Defence

Settled First Nations

Type: Document

Some cultures lived as settled nations, depending on agriculture and building strong fortifications. These included the Iroquois group and various peoples on the Pacific coast

Site: National Defence

Mohawk warriors attack the party of Father Jogues, 1646

Type: Image

Father Isaac Jogues, Friar Jean de Lanlande and a number of Huron converts were attacked by Mohawk warriors on the Richelieu River in October 1646. Captured and taken to an Iroquois town, they were killed on October 18. The Iroquois made travel on most waterways a very dangerous endeavour at this time; the small French garrison had no effective way to counter this.

Site: National Defence

War and the Foundation of Canada - Permanent European Settlement

Type: Document

During the 16th century, European fishermen, whalers, traders, adventurers, and explorers visited the eastern seaboard of North America and established a lucrative fur trade by the early 1600s. While fishermen and whalers had generally co-operated with First Peoples in exchanging goods, permanent European settlement and involvement in the fur trade with Hurons and Algonkians soon led the French to join these nations in their war with the Iroquois Confederacy.

Site: Canadian War Museum

1815 - War Ends

Type: Document

As the War of 1812 came to a close, the people who fought on both sides returned to civilian life.

Site: Parks Canada