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Nomadic Cultures

Type: Document

Various nomadic cultures developed in what is modern-day Canada. Prior to European contact, there were hundreds of Amerindian peoples with histories stretching back thousands of years.

Site: National Defence

Other Fruitless Expeditions

Type: Document

Martin Frobisher led unsuccessful English expeditions to find the Northwest Passage. There were conflicts with the Inuit. Other English mariners also voyaged to the region around Labrador.

Site: National Defence

The Skraelings' Way of War

Type: Document

Based on Viking accounts, the Skraelings were courageous and effective warriors. Their tactics have a lot in common with other Amerindian cultures.

Site: National Defence

Volunteer, Canadian Rangers, 1988

Type: Image

An Inuit volunteer with the Canadian Rangers, who have been active in the Canadian Arctic since 1947. (Canadian Department of National Defence, 88-367)

Site: National Defence

The Skraelings

Type: Document

The first North American warriors met by Europeans were the people the Vikings called the Skraelings.

Site: National Defence

Franklin's Tragic Expedition

Type: Document

In 1845, a large well-equipped Royal Navy expedition under Sir John Franklin left for the Arctic. They disappeared, and their fate was a great mystery for many years. Eventually, it was discovered that all involved had died, marching south from their ice-bound ships.

Site: National Defence

The Withdrawal Of The Vikings

Type: Document

The first armed European incursion into Canada was driven off by the native population. The Vikings felt the land, although good, was not worth a life dominated by battle and fear.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Rangers

Type: Document

This report describes the organization in 1947 of the Canadian Rangers as a Corps of the Reserve Militia and traces its development until the end of 1954.

Site: National Defence

Attempts at Colonizing Vinland

Type: Document

A Viking colony led by Karlsefni was soon abandoned after conflict with the Skraelings

Site: National Defence

Inuit hunter in a kayak as seen during Frobisher’s expedition

Type: Image

Made during the late 1570s, George Beste's illustrations and descriptions of the Inuit provide a humane and perceptive view of this arctic culture.

Site: National Defence