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Nomadic Cultures

Type: Document

Various nomadic cultures developed in what is modern-day Canada. Prior to European contact, there were hundreds of Amerindian peoples with histories stretching back thousands of years.

Site: National Defence

Micmac chief, circa 1740

Type: Image

This Micmac leader wears a mixture of Amerindian and European dress. Gifts of military clothing equipment were often made by the French colonial authories to allied leaders. Note the gorget around this man's neck - this small piece of armour was the symbol of an officer in European military fashion. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Meanwhile, in the British Colonies...

Type: Document

The keystone of the British garrison of Nova Scotia in the 1740s was the 40th Regiment of Foot whose colonel (Richard Phillips, 1661-1750) was governor 1717-1749. To help fight the Abenakis and Micmacs, companies of American and Mohawk Rangers were recruited

Site: National Defence

The War Of Spanish Succession

Type: Document

In 1702, when war broke out again between Britain and France after a short peace, the French garrisons in Acadia and Placentia were in good shape. St. John's was again attacked and captured, this time with aid from Canadian militia, Basque sailors and Micmac allies.

Site: National Defence

Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada: As Seen Through Your Eyes: Lesson Plan

Type: Document

What was life like in Port-Royal, Acadia, and what was the significance of the success of this small colony? This learning activity offers the opportunity to explore the trials and successes of this small group of French colonists from the perspective of one of its members.

Site: Parks Canada

Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada: On-Line Guided Tour

Type: Document

Upon entering, we see a series of self-contained working and living areas surrounding an interior courtyard that has a well in the centre. The steep pitched roofs are typical of the Norman architecture of the period.

Site: Parks Canada

Micmac warrior, circa 1740

Type: Image

This Amerindian carries a French-made musket and wears a European shirt. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

A Different Situation in Acadia

Type: Document

The population of Acadia was not militarized in the way French colonists in Canada were. Relations with the local Amerindians were good, while internal social conflict and long periods of English occupation discouraged the development of a strong militia.

Site: National Defence

Acadia

Type: Document

The first permanent French colony was in Acadia. It had good relations with the local Amerindians, but suffered from struggles with England.

Site: National Defence

War in Peace

Type: Document

For most of the Great War, Sam Glode served with a tunnelling company of the 6th Field Company and Battalion, Royal Canadian Engineer. The company dug tunnels in Belgium, carved dugouts at Vimy Ridge, and patched up roads near Amiens.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada