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An Ottawa Indian Chief, 1814

Type: Image

This Ottawa leader wears a tanned deershin robe. His hair is worn in a style noted for this culture, with two braids hanging down in the back. Amongst the silver ornaments around his neck, this man wears a European gorget. This piece of ceremonial throat armour was the mark of a European officer, and was a popular item with aboriginal leaders, according to surviving records. Reconstruction by Ron Volstad. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Indians Reject British Control - Pontiac's Revolt - Battle for a Continent

Type: Document

By 1763, Indians had been excluded from the process of territorial bargaining between the French and British. The British were encroaching on the Indians' hunting patterns. Pontiac, the Ottawas' war chief thus made plans to capture various British-held forts in the interior. From the television series "Canada: A People's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Struggle Continues

Type: Document

After months of skirmishes and attempts at peace talks, the Marquis de Tracy led a second large expedition into Iroquois territory in September 1666. Although the Iroquois could not be caught, their villages and crops were burned. Faced with starvation and trading competition, the Iroquois leaders signed a peace treaty to allow them to rebuild their strength.

Site: National Defence

French Attempts to Destroy a People

Type: Document

Governor General Beauharnois now encouraged and assisted France's Amerindian allies to destroy the Fox nation. Through 1729 and 1730, the Foxes suffered defeat after defeat. Attempting to flee eastwards, the Foxes were surrounded and massacred in September 1730.

Site: National Defence

Peace

Type: Document

The campaigns of the Régiment Carignan-Salières gave the colony of New France a chance to grow. Free from constant Iroquois attacks, the colony was able to open a rich fur trade with the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Algonquians.

Site: National Defence

First Clashes with the Foxes

Type: Document

The Fox people of the Illinois territory were persistent enemies of the French. Allied to the Iroquois and supported by the British, the Foxes made an attempt to settle near the French fort at Detroit in 1711. Conflict with other local tribes led to a slaughter of several hundred Foxes.

Site: National Defence