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Grand Pré National Historic Site of Canada: Putting Down Roots

Type: Document

Families from France first settled in Acadie in the 1630s. In the early 1680s, Pierre Melanson and Marguerite Mius d'Entremont and their children moved from Port-Royal to found Grand-Pré ...

Site: Parks Canada

Grand Pré National Historic Site of Canada: Introduction and Background

Type: Document

Grand-Pré National Historic Site of Canada commemorates Grand-Pré area as a centre of Acadian settlement from 1682 to 1755 and the Deportation of the Acadians, which began in 1755 and continued until 1762.

Site: Parks Canada

The Attack On Acadia

Type: Document

The resumption of hostilities saw French privateers from Port-Royal attacking ships from New England. The British colonies made two unsuccessful attempts to take the French port before a final expedition supported by British troops and the Royal Navy succeeded in 1710.

Site: National Defence

Grand Pré National Historic Site of Canada: Conflicts and Wars

Type: Document

Under both the French and the British, the residents of Les Mines exhibited a strong spirit of independence, made possible in part because of the distance separating them from the authorities at Port-Royal/Annapolis Royal.

Site: Parks Canada

The British Lay Siege to Louisbourg

Type: Document

In June 1758, a British fleet and army arrived off Île Royale, and the siege of Louisbourg began. It lasted five weeks, thanks to strong fortifications and the determination of the outnumbered defenders. French surrender was followed by deportation of the civilian population.

Site: National Defence

Ethnic Cleansing Prompted by Greed

Type: Document

Since 1713, the former French colony of Acadia had been part of British Nova Scotia. The large population of francophone Roman Catholics was a source of worry and jealousy to the authorities, and in July 1755, Governor Lawrence deployed troops to forcibly deport the Acadians.

Site: National Defence

Gathering Acadian women and children for deportation, Grand Pré, Acadia, July 1755

Type: Image

It is ‘the turn of the women and children’ at Grand Pré, Acadia, as troops come to gather them to be deported in the fall of 1755. Soldiers have occasionally been used to banish innocent civilian populations from their homes in Canadian history. The deportation of the Acadians is the first large scale example in Canada of the use of soldiers, in this case troops from Britain and from Massachusetts, to round up civilians. The arrest and internment of Canadians of Japanese origin during the Second World War is the latest such action.

Site: National Defence

Acadian militiaman, 1755-1760

Type: Image

Not all Acadians were deported in 1755. Some escaped into the wilderness of present-day New Brunswick and from there, staged such a relentless guerrilla-style warfare on British areas that it took great numbers of British and American provincial troops to guard, with variable success, the western borders to Nova Scotia. Following the surrender of the French army in September 1760, the Acadians partisans would not give up to the British and it took French officers to finally convince them to lay down their arms and respect the capitulation. Reconstruction by Derek Fitzjames. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

A Poorly Defended Colony

Type: Document

In 1775, the British colonies in the Maritimes were weakly garrisoned. Governor Legge of Nova Scotia, unable to get additional regular troops, used local militia companies to help guard against the American rebels and their sympathizers.

Site: National Defence

Grand Pré National Historic Site of Canada: The Deportation (1755-63)

Type: Document

Through this difficult period, most Acadians adhered to the policy of neutrality, which had been recognized by the Nova Scotia authorities in a qualified oath of allegiance sworn before Governor Philipps in 1729 and 1730.

Site: Parks Canada