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Americans Forced On the Defensive

Type: Document

Trying to strike back at the Loyalist raiders who caused such trouble, the American rebels sent troops to destroy Iroquois settlements in 1779. Although thousands of refugees were forced to flee, the raids continued with increased strength, with the rebels generally on the losing side.

Site: National Defence

A Return To Earlier Methods

Type: Document

After 1777, in order to keep the American rebels on the defensive, the British adopted the old Canadian tactic of raiding enemy settlements. The raids were made by mixed groups of Amerindians and soldiers. The troops used were American loyalists such as Butler's Rangers.

Site: National Defence

Another Round Of Iroquois Wars

Type: Document

The Iroquois pressed their advantage, raiding and spreading fear among the colonists. A French attempt to force a pitched battle was unsuccessful.

Site: National Defence

Iroquois warriors lurking near French settlements during the 1650s

Type: Image

Until the 1660s, especially in the Montreal area, no one in the French settlements really felt quite safe from surprise attacks by hostile Iroquois warriors. Many Canadian settlers, including women, learned to handle firearms during the 1650s.

Site: National Defence

The European Failure

Type: Document

Unlike the Spanish Central America, Europeans were unable to successfully colonize North America in the 16th Century. Amerindian guerrilla tactics combined with a cold and hostile land to frustrate the newcomers. Nevertheless, North America became a theatre of war for European conflicts.

Site: National Defence

Hostilities Between Settlers and Natives

Type: Document

The border region between Upper Canada and the United States became troubled during the early 1790s. British garrisons remained in several posts south of the Great Lakes, and American troops were fighting a campaign against an alliance of several Amerindian nations in 1790-1791.

Site: National Defence

300 Versus 3000

Type: Document

The American army attacked the Canadian position at Châteauguay on 26 October 1813, but it could not break through. The defenders use of cover and trickery made the invaders think they faced a far larger force. Added to the steady behaviour of the Canadians, this was enough to win.

Site: National Defence

Acadian militiaman, 1755-1760

Type: Image

Not all Acadians were deported in 1755. Some escaped into the wilderness of present-day New Brunswick and from there, staged such a relentless guerrilla-style warfare on British areas that it took great numbers of British and American provincial troops to guard, with variable success, the western borders to Nova Scotia. Following the surrender of the French army in September 1760, the Acadians partisans would not give up to the British and it took French officers to finally convince them to lay down their arms and respect the capitulation. Reconstruction by Derek Fitzjames. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Last Struggles of the Foxes

Type: Document

Even after this disaster, the Foxes were not silenced. In 1733, the remnants of the nation formed a new alliance with the Sauks in Iowa and attacked a French party. A punitive expedition was mounted without success, and in 1737 the French 'pardoned' the Foxes.

Site: National Defence

Conflict with the Locals

Type: Document

In 1775, during an exploration of the Pacific coast, seven Spanish sailors were massacred by Amerindians who had pretended friendship. After the disaster, which took place in the present-day Washington state, the Spanish sailed north to the 58th Parallel, claiming the coast for Spain.

Site: National Defence