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Battle of the Atlantic - Operations - Democracy at War

Type: Document

The Battle of the Atlantic was the struggle for control of the sea routes between the Americas and Europe and Africa. German forces attempted to break Britain’s vital supply link from the United States and Canada. During this six year conflict both sides suffered losses of personnel and materials.

Site: Canadian War Museum

War Intensifies - 1941 - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

As the spring of 1941 approached, Germany stepped up the scale of attack. To counteract this mounting menace from German submarines, new types of vessels were constructed and scientists worked desperately to design new methods of locating and destroying the submarine. Canada's fleet was augmented by several new types of vessels of which the corvette was the most famous. These small ships were invaluable in the anti-U-boat war.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Cost of War - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

The Battle of the Atlantic was a decisive struggle that was won, just in time, with massive help from Canada--from its navy, from its airmen, from its merchant marine and from its civilian population. This document presents the cost of this victory in terms of human lives lost and describes the sacrifice of RCAF Flight-Lieutenant David Hornell, who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Facts about the Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

Quick facts about the duration of the Battle of the Atlantic, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), the Merchant Marine, and U-boats (Unterseebooten).

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

"Miserable, rotten, hopeless life" - Canadian Sailors - Second World War- Military Might

Type: Document

Synopsis of television episode on the experiences of Canadian sailors as they face German U-boats on the high seas during the Second World War. This episode is part of the "Canada: A People's History" series. Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Grimmest Period - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

The Battle of the Atlantic reached its climax in March 1943; in that month the U-boats sent 108 Allied ships--569,000 tonnes of vital shipping--to the bottom. These figures were lower than in November 1942, but what was so disturbing was that 85 of the ships lost had been in convoy or straggling and most had been sunk in the North Atlantic. The only glimmer of hope lay in the success of the air and naval escorts in exacting a toll of 16 U-boats.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Royal Canadian Navy and the Battle of the Atlantic, 1939-1945

Type: Document

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest campaign of the Second World War and the most important. Canada was a major participant -- this country’s enormous effort in the struggle was crucial to Allied victory. While the ships and personnel of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) operated across the globe during the war, they are best remembered for their deeds during the Battle of the Atlantic. Reading list included.

Site: Canadian War Museum

The Corvette Navy

Type: Document

The Canadian solution to the German submarine threat were corvettes – small ships which were very manoeuvrable and equipped with ASDIC (Sonar). The small size of the Canadian navy was not able to meet the need for a vast expansion, and new ships were often ill-equipped with untrained crews and inexperienced officers. The escort force suffered serious losses calling into question the Navy's ability to carry out its job.

Site: National Defence

Canada and the Second World War - The Battle of the Atlantic. 1939-1945

Type: Document

Throughout the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy (R.C.N.), the Canadian Merchant Navy, and the immense output of Canadian industry proved vital in the costly Allied victory. To maintain its war effort, Great Britain imported enormous quantities of supplies by sea. Halifax was the main port on the east coast of North America from where convoys of merchant ships sailed together for the hazardous trans-Atlantic crossing.

Site: Canadian War Museum

Early Battles - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

In April 1940 the war in Europe took an ominous turn. On June 22, 1940, France surrendered, and Britain and its Dominions stood alone against a formidable enemy. Although Britain managed to stave off Hitler's planned invasion, it remained under siege. London and the Channel ports were bombed unmercifully, and the U-boats, using their brand new bases in France, attacked convoys and independently-routed ships almost at will.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada