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Subject > Weapons, Equipment and Fortifications > Equipment, Materials and Infrastructure

Date > 1600

To the Sound of the Drummer's Beat

Type: Document

Fortified towns like Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Louisbourg were all governed by military staffs. The lives of French soldiers and Canadian civilians alike were regulated by the different drum beatings of the garrison, from La Diane at dawn to La Retraite at sunset.

Site: National Defence

Another Round Of Iroquois Wars

Type: Document

The Iroquois pressed their advantage, raiding and spreading fear among the colonists. A French attempt to force a pitched battle was unsuccessful.

Site: National Defence

A Strategic Problem

Type: Document

During the rest of the 1690s, the Iroquois and French traded raids. The Iroquois settlements suffered greatly, while the Amerindians felt they were being poorly supported by their English allies. Exhausted, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with France in 1701.

Site: National Defence

The Struggle Continues

Type: Document

After months of skirmishes and attempts at peace talks, the Marquis de Tracy led a second large expedition into Iroquois territory in September 1666. Although the Iroquois could not be caught, their villages and crops were burned. Faced with starvation and trading competition, the Iroquois leaders signed a peace treaty to allow them to rebuild their strength.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

History of Cape Merry

Type: Document

Cape Merry was once called Knight's Round Point. James Knight sailed into the mouth of the Churchill River to begin construction of a fur trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1717. The cape was later renamed to honour Captain John Merry, who was the Deputy Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1712-18. This page describes the construction of the fort and its cannon battery.

Site: Parks Canada

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Structure and Organization of Forts & Chateaux- Four Forts

Type: Document

The Saint-Louis forts and châteaux site is complex. It consists of three elements: the forts, châteaux and gardens. There were a total of four forts and two Châteaux

Site: Parks Canada

Model of the second habitation at Quebec, circa 1625

Type: Image

Construction of this building started in May 1624. The model shows the stone structure with its two corner turrets as it was circa 1625. The habitation was abandoned in 1633 following a fire.

Site: National Defence

The Regiment Departs

Type: Document

Between April and September 1665, the Régiment Carignan-Salières crossed the Atlantic to Canada. The unit was organized into 20 companies, each with officers and non-commissioned officers to lead it.

Site: National Defence

Mixed Results

Type: Document

The first expedition by the Régiment Carignan-Salières was a fiasco, but it did prove that winter expeditions were possible. Important lessons about food, clothing and experienced guides were learned that would serve the French in Canada well later on.

Site: National Defence