History Browser

Search Results

Date > 1600

Subject > Politics and Society > Industry and Commerce

A New Monetary System

Type: Document

Official currency in France and its colonies consisted of 'livres' (pounds), 'sous' (shillings) and 'deniers' (pence), but the shortage of coins led to common use of Spanish silver pieces in New France. The first recorded use of paper money in the modern sense was also in New France.

Site: National Defence

The French And British Navies

Type: Document

Both Britain and France needed strong navies to protect their coasts, fishing fleets and colonies. The peak of French naval power was during the 1690s, when it dominated the coasts of England. Defeated in 1692, the French navy declined in quality and strength from that point on.

Site: National Defence

A Garrison at Placentia

Type: Document

A small garrison of Troupes de la Marine arrived in Newfoundland in 1687, where fortifications were gradually established. The garrison suffered from desertion, and was attacked by pirates, English privateers and the English Royal Navy.

Site: National Defence

Royal Control Replaces Private Enterprise

Type: Document

When King Louis XIV of France reached his majority, he started a wave of reforms in France. The colonies, too, saw changes, with the Crown taking control from the private companies that had once held monopolies.

Site: National Defence

Dollard's Expedition Surprised

Type: Document

A party of men under Dollard des Ormeaux, commander of the Montreal garrison, was surprised by a much larger group of Iroquois. Besieged at a disused Algonquin fort at Long-Sault on the Ottawa River, the Frenchmen and their Huron allies were wiped out.

Site: National Defence

Conflicting Strategic Interests

Type: Document

French strategy in Acadia and Newfoundland centred around controlling access to the St. Lawrence River. Competition with Britain and her American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries led to the fortification and garrisoning of the region.

Site: National Defence

The Colony Expands

Type: Document

A new settlement was begun, westwards of Quebec in Iroquois territory at Ville-Marie (later Montreal) in 1642. Another big development for the colony was the arrival of 60 soldiers paid for by the Queen of France.

Site: National Defence

Western Posts and the Fur Trade

Type: Document

The commanders of the small western forts were allowed to take part in the fur trade, as a bonus for accepting such remote postings. Gradually, over the decades, officers withdrew from direct involvement, preferring to sell the rights to merchants for fixed payments.

Site: National Defence

Worsening Relations with the Iroquois

Type: Document

Under Governor Montmagny, relations with the Iroquois soured further. Outright war broke out in 1641.

Site: National Defence

The Struggle Continues

Type: Document

After months of skirmishes and attempts at peace talks, the Marquis de Tracy led a second large expedition into Iroquois territory in September 1666. Although the Iroquois could not be caught, their villages and crops were burned. Faced with starvation and trading competition, the Iroquois leaders signed a peace treaty to allow them to rebuild their strength.

Site: National Defence