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Date > 1700

Subject > Armed Forces > Military Command and Administration

Attempts to Increase Military Strength

Type: Document

Despite their disunity, the staff of New France agreed on one thing - the need for more fighting men to defend the colony. During the winter of 1756-57, Governor Vaudreuil reorganized existing resources, and two more battalions from the French metropolitan army were dispatched.

Site: National Defence

Compagnies franches de la Marine (Warships)

Type: Document

The names of troops raised by the French Ministry of Marine often confuse people. There were separate units of Compagnies franches de la Marine to serve aboard warships. These troops had nothing to do with the Compagnies franches found in Canada.

Site: National Defence

Division in Wolfe's Camp - Battle for Quebec - Battle for a Continent

Type: Document

The British bombing of Quebec lasted nine weeks, and still they could not take the city. The British camp was confused and divided. General James Wolfe could not decide where to attack and he faced growing opposition even within his own ranks. From the television series "Canada: A People's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Quebec Surrenders

Type: Document

In 1759, both the British and French generals were fatally wounded during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe died on the field, and Montcalm the next day. Before dying, Montcalm ordered the French army to surrender the city and retreat to Montreal.

Site: National Defence

The Navy's Troops Outside North America

Type: Document

The French Ministry of the Navy was responsible for warships, coastal defence and management of the colonies. As a result, it maintained troops in France and the West Indies as well as in North America.

Site: National Defence

Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers

Type: Document

Both General Montcalm and Governor Vaudreuil wrote to their respective superiors in the fall of 1756, complaining of the other's behaviour. The officers of New France had split into two hostile camps: Canadian-born (led by the Governor) and French-born (led by Montcalm).

Site: National Defence

The British Garrison

Type: Document

In 1755, the British colonies were more lightly garrisoned than their French counterparts. The largest concentration was in Nova Scotia, where 1,500 regular soldiers were stationed. The other colonies had to make due with scattered Independent Companies to support their militia.

Site: National Defence

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

The Staff of the Navy Troops

Type: Document

Although the Compagnies franches de la Marine were independent from each other, there was a small group of men responsible for them as a body within New France.

Site: National Defence

Impulsive Montcalm Crushed

Type: Document

On the morning of 13 September 1759, General Montcalm saw the British army deployed on the fields west of Quebec. He led his French and Canadian troops out of the city, without waiting to gather his full forces. The resulting battle was a crushing defeat for the French.

Site: National Defence