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Date > 1700

Subject > Politics and Society > Domestic Politics and International Relations

Attempts to Increase Military Strength

Type: Document

Despite their disunity, the staff of New France agreed on one thing - the need for more fighting men to defend the colony. During the winter of 1756-57, Governor Vaudreuil reorganized existing resources, and two more battalions from the French metropolitan army were dispatched.

Site: National Defence

Corruption Causes Hardship

Type: Document

In 1756, the graft of Canadian-born François Bigot, Intendant (and chief financial minister of New France) made a bad situation worse. His theft and corruption led to rampant inflation in New France, which impoverished many officers, particularly the French-born ones without local incomes.

Site: National Defence

Americans Forced On the Defensive

Type: Document

Trying to strike back at the Loyalist raiders who caused such trouble, the American rebels sent troops to destroy Iroquois settlements in 1779. Although thousands of refugees were forced to flee, the raids continued with increased strength, with the rebels generally on the losing side.

Site: National Defence

Grand Pré National Historic Site of Canada: Putting Down Roots

Type: Document

Families from France first settled in Acadie in the 1630s. In the early 1680s, Pierre Melanson and Marguerite Mius d'Entremont and their children moved from Port-Royal to found Grand-Pré ...

Site: Parks Canada

An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

Quebec Surrenders

Type: Document

In 1759, both the British and French generals were fatally wounded during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe died on the field, and Montcalm the next day. Before dying, Montcalm ordered the French army to surrender the city and retreat to Montreal.

Site: National Defence

The Navy's Troops Outside North America

Type: Document

The French Ministry of the Navy was responsible for warships, coastal defence and management of the colonies. As a result, it maintained troops in France and the West Indies as well as in North America.

Site: National Defence

Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers

Type: Document

Both General Montcalm and Governor Vaudreuil wrote to their respective superiors in the fall of 1756, complaining of the other's behaviour. The officers of New France had split into two hostile camps: Canadian-born (led by the Governor) and French-born (led by Montcalm).

Site: National Defence

The British Garrison

Type: Document

In 1755, the British colonies were more lightly garrisoned than their French counterparts. The largest concentration was in Nova Scotia, where 1,500 regular soldiers were stationed. The other colonies had to make due with scattered Independent Companies to support their militia.

Site: National Defence

Letter From General Haldimand to Lieut. -Colonel De Peyster. - Loyalists - Original Documents

Type: Document

This letter discusses how land around Fort Niagara is to be distributed amongst the disbanded troops, Loyalist settlers, and Indian allies in the year 1784. The land on which Fort George would eventually be built was to be held in reserve.

Site: Parks Canada