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Date > 1700

Subject > Weapons, Equipment and Fortifications > Equipment, Materials and Infrastructure

British Fleet Lifts the Siege

Type: Document

Despite having won a battle outside the city in April 1760, the French army was unable to retake Quebec. General Murray, commanding the British defenders, refused to give up. A siege began for control of the city, but a British fleet arrived with more men, ending the contest.

Site: National Defence

An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

Fears of French Fleets

Type: Document

France's 1778 entry into the American Revolutionary War spread fear in several places. The Maritimes worried about a French fleet disrupting shipping in the Gulf of St. Lawrence or attacking Newfoundland. In Quebec, officials worried about Canadian reaction to a French landing.

Site: National Defence

To the Sound of the Drummer's Beat

Type: Document

Fortified towns like Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Louisbourg were all governed by military staffs. The lives of French soldiers and Canadian civilians alike were regulated by the different drum beatings of the garrison, from La Diane at dawn to La Retraite at sunset.

Site: National Defence

J.C.B. Goes to Canada

Type: Document

There is an eye-witness account of the life of a soldier recruited for the Troupes de la Marine in Canada. Joseph Charles Bonin, called 'J.C.B.' joined in 1751, bored with his life as a clerk. After a seasickness filled Atlantic crossing, J.C.B. reached Quebec.

Site: National Defence

The Tide Turns Against New France

Type: Document

In 1758, French attempts to halt General Forbes' British army were not enough to hold the Ohio Valley, and Fort Duquesne had to be blown up. Earlier that summer, Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario had been taken by Americans. Calls for help fell on deaf ears in France, in trouble in Europe.

Site: National Defence

Scene of daily life at Fort Beauséjour, around 1753

Type: Image

This view of the interior of Fort Beauséjour shows some of the activities that took place there just before the Seven Years' War. In the foreground, men are moving supplies. In the centre, an officer talks with a missionary who accompanies a pair of Abenakis. A left, a detachment of French soldiers escorts an English deserter. Reconstruction by Lewis Parker. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

General Montcalm Takes Oswego

Type: Document

In May of 1755, further reinforcements drawn from the French metropolitan army arrived in Canada. They were led by the mercurial Marquis de Montcalm, whose first action in the colony was to lead a successful European-style siege of the British forts defending Oswego.

Site: National Defence

A Colonial Way of War

Type: Document

During the 18th century, France held huge inland regions in North America with a few men for two reasons. First, land was largely controlled by trade alliances with local Amerindians. Second, tactics were used that combined indigenous methods with European organization and discipline.

Site: National Defence

York Redoubt - History

Type: Document

In 1793, at the outbreak of war between Britain and revolutionary France, harbour batteries were hastily erected to secure Halifax from attack by sea. In the 19th century York Redoubt and the Citadel used signal flags to keep each other informed of ships' movements. During the First World War, the site was used as barracks for assigned infantry and for troops waiting to go overseas. Early in the Second World War, the Redoubt was the nerve centre for harbour defences, and included an anti-submarine net. York Redoubt remained in military use until 1956.

Site: Parks Canada