Canadian Military History Gateway
Date > 1900
Subject > Wars, Battles and Conflicts > British Colonial Period, 1760-1867
Louis Riel was born in Saint Boniface in 1844 and was educated in Montréal. When he returned to the Red River Settlement in 1868, he found the community anxious and divided over its political future.
The term Métis, like the 'mestizo', has its origins in the Latin word 'mixticius' which means a person of mixed racial ancestry. Métis, however, describes more than race-it refers to a culture and a nation that played a significant role in the history of the Canadian West and is now a proud part of the Canadian mosaic.
This national historic site of Canada has close ties with Métis leader and a founder of Manitoba, Louis Riel. Occupying river lot 51 along the Red River, Riel House National Historic Site was Riel's family home, where his descendants continued to live until 1969.
It is June of 1812, and the United States has declared war on Great Britain! Tension has been simmering between these two nations for many years and for many reasons.
Introduction by W.A.B. Douglas, Director Directorate of History, Program Chairman. Articles in a variety of languages including: English, German, French, Italian, Portugese, Spanish, Russian, Greek.
Built between 1828 and 1856, the Quebec Citadel has remained largely the same ever since, as this 1950s picture shows. It is now the regimental HQ of the Royal 22e Régiment / Royal 22nd Regiment - the famous 'Van Doos'. (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)
Carleton Martello Tower is of national significance because it was built for the defense of Saint John during the War of 1812-1814. It is also significant as a unique type of military architecture known as a Martello tower.
A brief history of this National Historic Site located on St. Joseph Island from the time the fort was constructed in 1797 until archaeological work was done in the 1970s. From a military standpoint, Fort St. Joseph played a defensive role - its primary purpose being to protect the fur trade from the Americans. Its role in the War of 1812 is also examined.
The Royal Navy was crucial in the defence of British North America in the 19th century, even though Canadians seldom saw warships. The threat of a naval blockade and raids by the British fleet helped American politicians to find diplomatic solutions to Anglo-American disputes.
At the turn of the century, Carleton Martello Tower was an outdated fortification. It was, however, ready to adopt a new role, that of local attraction. The Tower was also used during the First World War, but not as a defence base. Rather, it operated as a detention center for deserters from the 69th Canadian Infantry Battalion.