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Map of the siege of Quebec, 1759

Type: Image

This 1810 plan of the 1759 siege of Quebec was based on the survey made by order of Admiral Saunders, the Royal Navy commander of the expedition. (Library and Archives Canada, C-014523)

Site: National Defence

Map of Halifax, 1865

Type: Image

Starting in the late 1820s, the fortifications of Halifax were developed into a formidable defence complex. The new Citadel on the hill dominated the city’s landscape with batteries dotting the coast to provide crossfire against enemy ships. George’s Island was also heavily fortified to block the passage leading into Bedford basin. This 1865 map of Halifax shows these defences were woven into the layout of the city. (Library and Archives Canada, NMC 48125-6/6)

Site: National Defence

Map of the battle of Châteauguay, 26 October 1813

Type: Image

The battle of Châteauguay took place along the east and west banks of the Châteauguay river. There was a narrow cleared area on the west bank (towards the top of this map published in 1815), and it was here that the Canadian defenders manned their abbatis (barricades made of felled trees) on 26 October 1813. Most of the fighting took place on the west bank, but an American attempt to outflank the abbatis led to fierce and confused fighting on the east bank as well. The broken terrain helped the defenders by keeping the invaders from realizing that they outnumbered the Canadians ten to one.

Site: National Defence

Map of the Military Districts of Canada, circa 1910

Type: Image

The Canadian ministry of Militia and Defence was established in 1868. The country was originally divided by the ministry into nine Military Districts. Additional districts were added later on.

Site: National Defence

Detail of a map of Quebec City in 1780

Type: Image

This map shows Quebec and the surrounding countryside in 1780. It was created by Bernard de Weiderhold, an officer of the German troops in British service posted in Canada during the American War of Independence. 1780 was five years after the failed American attack on Quebec and German troops formed most of the garrison. Note the wall around the city and the strengthened redoubt area on Cape Diamond where the Citadel was eventually built in the 1820s. (Portuguese Army Library, Lisbon)

Site: National Defence

Fort Frontenac, 1758

Type: Image

At the upper left are the British trenches dug during the short 1758 siege of Fort Frontenac. A portion of the foundations of the fort are still to be seen in present-day Kingston, Ontario.

Site: National Defence

Fort La Présentation in the 1750s

Type: Image

Established in about 1718, Fort La Présentation was rebuilt from 1748. This was an important base for French allied Indians on the upper St. Lawrence River who were much influenced by Father Piquet, a Sulpician missionary. In 1752, it was described by John Defever as having ‘a town of about forty wigwams, and have a French priest among them’ next to the fort. It was taken by the British in 1760 and is now the town of Ogdensburg, NY.

Site: National Defence

Map of the Montreal area at the time of the 1837-1838 Rebellions

Type: Image

The rebellions occurred mainly in the Richelieu River Valley in Saint-Denis and Saint-Charles, as well as in Saint-Eustache and in the vicinity of Beauharnois.

Site: National Defence

Plan of Fort Erie in September 1814

Type: Image

The British post at Fort Erie was extensively rebuilt by the Americans who captured it during the summer of 1814. The view here shows the rebuilt fort surrounded by the American camp as in September 1814.

Site: National Defence

Map of the Niagara Peninsula

Type: Image

This map of the Niagara Peninsula shows the principle settlements and fortifications found in the frontier region during the War of 1812. The map dates from the mid-19th century, and also shows later features such as the Welland Canal (first opened in 1829), several railways, the 1855 Niagara Falls suspension bridge and the site of the 1866 battle of Ridgeway.

Site: National Defence