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Subject > Strategy and Tactics > Fortifications

The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

Americans Forced On the Defensive

Type: Document

Trying to strike back at the Loyalist raiders who caused such trouble, the American rebels sent troops to destroy Iroquois settlements in 1779. Although thousands of refugees were forced to flee, the raids continued with increased strength, with the rebels generally on the losing side.

Site: National Defence

An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

Division in Wolfe's Camp - Battle for Quebec - Battle for a Continent

Type: Document

The British bombing of Quebec lasted nine weeks, and still they could not take the city. The British camp was confused and divided. General James Wolfe could not decide where to attack and he faced growing opposition even within his own ranks. From the television series "Canada: A People's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Fortress Europe - German Coastal Defences and the Canadian Role in Liberating the Channel Ports

Type: Document

By 1942, fearing an Allied invasion in the west while embroiled in war with the Soviet Union in the east, Hitler endeavoured to create the "Atlantic Wall", or "Fortress Europe", by encrusting the Atlantic seacoast with concrete and steel defences. This article describes these German fortifications and how the First Canadian Army participated in capturing these defensive positions. Includes reading list.

Site: Canadian War Museum

A New Balance of Power?

Type: Document

With more troops available, new tactics could be used to defend Canada. Strong garrisons for the towns and new forts to block Iroquois attacks along the Richelieu River were created.

Site: National Defence

The City Falls

Type: Document

Encouraged by weak British resistance, the American rebels were able to capture Fort Saint-Jean south of Montreal in November 1775. This left the city without defence, and Governor Carleton fled. The rebels took Montreal, and began trying to raise Canadian troops to fight for them.

Site: National Defence

Canso Islands National Historic Site of Canada: History

Type: Document

Grassy Island Fort National Historic Site of Canada, located on Grassy Island, one of the Canso Islands, features the ruins of 18th century fortifications and the remains of a colonial New England fishing station that are the reminders of a thriving community that was once the commercial heart of Nova Scotia.

Site: Parks Canada

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada: The War of 1812

Type: Document

It is June of 1812, and war has been declared between the United States and Great Britain! Tension has been simmering between these two nations for many years and for many reasons.

Site: Parks Canada